Ukraine travel guide



Ukraine Travel Guide

Ukraine History

The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

Ukraine participated in the World War I, on the side of both Central Powers, under Austria, and the Triple Entente, under Russia. With the fall down of the Russian and Austrian empires after the World War I and the 1917 October Revolution in Russia, a Ukrainian national movement of autonomy re-emerged.

On January 22, 1918, Ukraine declared its independence from Russia, the Central Rada was formed and Mykhaylo Hrushevsky became the first Ukrainian President. Divergences soon arose between pro-Communists and non-Communists, after years of war; the vision of an independent Ukraine ended when the Red Army arrived victorious over Kiev.

According to the Peace of Riga concluded between Soviet Russia and Poland, the country was divided in two; the western part of Galicia was formally incorporated into Poland. Poland in turn recognized the creation of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, that later became a element of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922.

In the late 1920s, Ukraine was involved in the Soviet industrialization; to satisfy the need for food supplies, the Soviet government implemented a program of collectivization of lands and animals, those who resisted were arrested, deported or killed.

The collectivization originated a cruel famine which killed an estimated 5 million. In 193233, Stalin increased the grain procurement quota for Ukraine by 44%, Soviet law required that the affiliates of a collective farm would obtain no grain until government quotas were satisfied.

Due the inability of the Ukrainian peasant to feed themselves, starvation in Ukraine became widespread, the resulting man-made famine, known as Holodomor took the lives of several millions, in what was a deliberate act of genocide. The main goal of this artificial famine was to fracture the spirit of the Ukrainian peasant and to force them into collectivization.

These times also brought a wide campaign against Ukrainisation which was replaced by a massive Russification, barring the Ukrainian language from government and education, approximately four-fifths of the Ukrainian cultural elite had been purged, executed or exiled to the Gulag, and this was accompanied by a ban on the Ukrainian Orthodox Church

Ukraine History

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